IEHS Online


Bryan Winston, “Contesting Immigration Incarceration: How the Mexican Consulate in St. Louis Worked to Free Migrants”

On December 11, 1911, a court in Johnson County, Iowa found Enrique Betancourt guilty of larceny. A week later, he was incarcerated at the Reformatory in Anamosa, Iowa, sentenced for five years. Betancourt, who only arrived in the United States…